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Local and traditional ecological knowledge (LTK) is increasingly recognized as an important component of scientific research, conservation, and resource management. Especially where there are gaps in the scientific literature, LTK can be a critical source of basic environmental data; this situation is particularly apparent in the case of marine ecosystems, about which comparatively less is known than terrestrial ones. Integrating local ecological knowledge and manipulative experiments to find the causes of environmental change. Foremost, this involves understanding how LTK, including related skills, is communicated and transmitted in situ and in vivo as part of the exigencies of maritime life (Aporta and Higgs 2005, Berkes and Turner 2006, Crona and Bodin 2006, Foale 2006b, Murray et al. At a broader scale, the question of how ecological knowledge systems interact at different decision-making scales has also been examined (Evans 2010), as have the impacts of the broader social and political context on the ability of marine tenure systems to adapt and support well-being (Coulthard 2011). 2006, Akyeampong 2007, Palmer and Wadley 2007, Poepoe et al. Local tenure systems—such as those in the Fiji Local Marine Management Areas network, which are based on traditional i qoliqoli (fishing territories) (Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas Network 2011)—have also been successfully aggregated, in order to appropriately scale LTK and participation to marine ecosystem governance needs. Fourth, some work has sought to compare LTK and data gathered by Western scientific methods. Lore: capturing traditional environmental knowledge. Dene Cultural Institute, International Development Research Centre, Hay River, Northwest Territories, Canada. For example, Silvano and Valbo-Jorgensen (2008) compare Brazilian fishermen’s knowledge with published studies, finding cases of both agreement and disagreement, as do Batista and Lima (2010) in a similar examination of knowledge of jaraquis. Traditional environmental knowledge from the Marovo Area of the Solomon Islands. A third body of literature critically reflects on methods (Neis et al. These studies caution against simple, extractive approaches and show how deeper-level ethnographic, participatory, and iterative methods can lead to more ethical, respectful, and constructive engagements with LTK bearers and indigenous communities. Traditional knowledge for resource management in Marovo, Soloman Islands. The benefits of a deep ethnographic approach, often involving years of research, are evident in a handful of classic marine LTK monographs (e.g., Malinowski 1922, Nelson 1969, Johannes 1981).

The relationship between fishers' ecological knowledge and their fishing success has been probed, finding that human factors such as knowledge and skill may play as much of a role in fishing success as material or technological factors (Bjarnason and Thorlindsson 1993), and that LTK may correlate positively with success, where success is understood as a fisher's ability to manage unpredictability in a complex, changing environment (García-Quijano 2009). For example, Satria (2007) analyses why traditional fishing practices ceased and then were re-instated in Indonesia. Key words: adaptive comanagement; collaborative research; collaborative resource management; ecological monitoring; environmental change; historical ecology; local and traditional knowledge (LTK); marine conservation; marine ecology; marine ecosystems Over the past several decades, as concerns about declines in local habitats, species, and livelihoods have increased, the potential contributions of local and traditional knowledge (LTK) to ecosystem research and management have been increasingly recognized.