Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century." The cloth is believed to have been in a chest of relics from at least the time of the Moorish invasion of Spain.It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in 1075.It is claimed that there is type AB blood on the shroud. Blood has not been identified on the shroud directly, but it has been identified on sticky tape that was used to lift fibrils from the shroud. Other tests by Adler and Heller have identified it as blood.* If it is blood, it could be the blood of some 14th century person.It could be the blood of someone wrapped in the shroud, or the blood of the creator of the shroud, or of anyone who has ever handled the shroud, or of anyone who handled the sticky tape."All empirical evidence and logical reasoning concerning the shroud of Turin will lead any objective, rational person to the firm conclusion that the shroud is an artifact created by an artist in the fourteenth-century."The "shroud" of Turin is a woven cloth about 14 feet long and 3.5 feet wide with an image of a man on it.Actually, it has two images, one frontal and one rear, with the heads meeting in the middle.Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood." Mc Crone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen (gelatin) tempera binder" (Mc Crone 1998).
In any case, the fact that pollen grains found near the Dead Sea or Jerusalem were on the shroud means little.However, the floral images they see are hidden in mottled stains much the way the image of Jesus is hidden in a tortilla or the image of Mary is hidden in the bark of a tree.The first to see flowers in the stains was a psychiatrist, who was probably an expert at seeing personality traits in inkblots (Nickell, 1994)Danin notes that another relic believed to be the burial face cloth of Jesus (the Sudarium of Oviedo in Spain) contains the same two types of pollen grains as the Shroud and also is stained with type AB blood.For example, it is claimed to be the negative image of a crucifixion victim.
It is claimed to be the image of a man brutally beaten in a way which corresponds to the way Jesus is thought to have been treated.
For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.